Babylonians created massive volumes of astronomical observations. From that, they created mathematical models. With mathematical models they created calendars. From that, they could time important things.
Mayan, a group of Mesoamericans, had books but they were burnt by the Spanish. They used the base of 20.
The Greek created the Ptolemaic System which thought that earth was the centre of the universe which has then later been disproven. Hispacas is the creator of trigonometry. He also discovered the Precession of the Equinoxes, the term for the wobbling of the earth around its axis. In 12,000 years the north star will no longer be Polaris.
How did the models create the calenders?
Why did the Spanish burn the books?
I now understand that people used astronomy in different ways.